risk of errors and adverse events occurring with the health system can be divided into the following five areas:
∑ The risk of individual clinical incompetence or malpractice:
∑ The risk of systems failure:
∑ Risks imposed by cost constraints:
∑ Patientsí perception of risk:
∑ Risks inherent in clinical procedures:
Patients, healthcare professionals, health managers and health organisations are together asked to help in defining the most effective way of managing risk generally and in relation to individual cases as well as identifying where the responsibility for different levels of risk should lie.