1st International Course on
Integrated Biomarkers

Biochemical and Bioimaging Endpoints in Cardiocerebrovascular Diagnosis,
Prevention, Therapy and Drug Development


Biomarkers 2005

To facilitate the dialogue among the multidisciplinary scientists, definition of the acronyms and of more specialized terms have been reported. Every amendment is welcome.

Andrea P. Peracino
Stefano Bellosta
Nicola Ferri
Riccardo Roggeri

Inflammation is the first response of the immune system to infection or irritation and may be referred to as the innate cascade. Inflammation is characterized by the following quintet: redness (rubor), heat (calor), swelling (tumor), pain (dolor) and dysfunction of the organs involved (functio laesa). The first four characteristics have been known since ancient times and are attributed to Celsus; functio laesa was added to the definition of inflammation by Rudolf Virchow in 1858.

The hypothesis about physiopathology of the atherogenesis have evolved from the cholesterol theory of the 1950s and 1960s to the theory of endothelial injury in the 1970s and 1980s, and now into the concept that atherosclerosis is an inflammatory disease. In reality cholesterol, endothelial injury, and inflammation all play a role in atherogenesis: oxidized low-density lipoprotein triggers endothelial cells to stimulate the migration and activation of leukocytes within the vessel wall, which leads to an inflammatory response.


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