1st International Course on
Integrated Biomarkers

Biochemical and Bioimaging Endpoints in Cardiocerebrovascular Diagnosis,
Prevention, Therapy and Drug Development


Biomarkers 2005

To facilitate the dialogue among the multidisciplinary scientists, definition of the acronyms and of more specialized terms have been reported. Every amendment is welcome.

Andrea P. Peracino
Stefano Bellosta
Nicola Ferri
Riccardo Roggeri

Endothelium in Atherogenesis
Endothelium in Atherogenesis: the early endothelium damage is prompeted by several factors icluding oxidised LDL, with protective effect of HDL; activated neutrophiles and macrophages adher to the damaged endothelium; activated macrophages become foam cells by uptake of oxidized LDL, and synthetize Angiotensin II to promotes oxidative stress caused by reactive oxygene species (ROS) ant stimulate the formation of VICAM, and promotes growth of Vascular Smooth Cells (VSM)

The hypothesis about physiopathology of the atherogenesis have evolved from the cholesterol theory of the 1950s and 1960s to the theory of endothelial injury in the 1970s and 1980s, and now into the concept that atherosclerosis is an inflammatory disease. In reality cholesterol, endothelial injury, and inflammation all play a role in atherogenesis: oxidized low-density lipoprotein triggers endothelial cells to stimulate the migration and activation of leukocytes within the vessel wall, which leads to an inflammatory response.


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