1st International Course on
Integrated Biomarkers

Biochemical and Bioimaging Endpoints in Cardiocerebrovascular Diagnosis,
Prevention, Therapy and Drug Development


Biomarkers 2005

To facilitate the dialogue among the multidisciplinary scientists, definition of the acronyms and of more specialized terms have been reported. Every amendment is welcome.

Andrea P. Peracino
Stefano Bellosta
Nicola Ferri
Riccardo Roggeri

Toll-like Receptors (TLRs) type I transmembrane proteins that recognize pathogens and activate immune cell responses as a key part of the innate immune system. In vertebrates, they can help activate the adaptive immune system, linking innate and acquired immune responses. TLR are pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), binding to pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), small molecular sequences consistently found on pathogens.


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