1st International Course on
Integrated Biomarkers

Biochemical and Bioimaging Endpoints in Cardiocerebrovascular Diagnosis,
Prevention, Therapy and Drug Development


Biomarkers 2005

To facilitate the dialogue among the multidisciplinary scientists, definition of the acronyms and of more specialized terms have been reported. Every amendment is welcome.

Andrea P. Peracino
Stefano Bellosta
Nicola Ferri
Riccardo Roggeri

The result of the performance (or nonperformance) of a function(s) or process(es). . Outcomes may be described as: immediate, intermediate or final, direct or indirect, intended or unintended. Outcomes in a logic model typically have an action word associated with them (eg, increased or improved) and represent the consequences of the activities and outputs. When referring to CVD, this is a term given to mean significant events such as heart attacks, strokes or sudden death measured within long-term, major clinical studies.

Surrogate endpoint
an outcome measure that is used in place of a primary endpoint (outcome). Use of a surrogate endpoint assumes that it is a reliable predictor of the primary endpoint(s) of interest.


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