1st International Course on
Integrated Biomarkers

Biochemical and Bioimaging Endpoints in Cardiocerebrovascular Diagnosis,
Prevention, Therapy and Drug Development


Biomarkers 2005

To facilitate the dialogue among the multidisciplinary scientists, definition of the acronyms and of more specialized terms have been reported. Every amendment is welcome.

Andrea P. Peracino
Stefano Bellosta
Nicola Ferri
Riccardo Roggeri

Apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) is the primary protein constituent of HDL, defining its size and shape, solubilizing its lipid components, removing cholesterol from peripheral cells, activating the LCAT enzyme, and delivering the resulting cholesterol esters to the liver.

Endothelium in Atherogenesis
Endothelium in Atherogenesis: the early endothelium damage is prompeted by several factors icluding oxidised LDL, with protective effect of HDL; activated neutrophiles and macrophages adher to the damaged endothelium; activated macrophages become foam cells by uptake of oxidized LDL, and synthetize Angiotensin II to promotes oxidative stress caused by reactive oxygene species (ROS) ant stimulate the formation of VICAM, and promotes growth of Vascular Smooth Cells (VSM)

A lipid surrounded by a protein; the protein makes it so the lipid is soluble (can be dissolved) in the blood. forms:High-density Lipoprotein (HDL) - A component of cholesterol, HDL helps protect against heart disease by promoting cholesterol breakdown and removal from the blood; hence, its nickname "good cholesterol. Low-density Lipoprotein (LDL) - The body's primary cholesterol-carrying molecule. High blood levels of LDL increase a person's risk of heart disease by promoting cholesterol attachment and accumulation in blood vessels; hence, the popular nickname "bad cholesterol." adj: atherogenic Lipoproteins, anti-atherogenic Lipoproteins


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